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How To End The Cryptocurrency Exchange "Wild West" Without Crippling Innovation


In case you haven't noticed the consultation paper, staff notice, and report on Quadriga, regulators are now clamping down on Canadian cryptocurrency exchanges. The OSC and other regulatory bodies are still interested in industry feedback. They have not put forward any official regulation yet. Below are some ideas/insights and a proposed framework.



Many of you have limited time to read the full proposal, so here are the highlights:

Offline Multi-Signature

Effective standards to prevent both internal and external theft. Exchange operators are trained and certified, and have a legal responsibility to users.

Regular Transparent Audits

Provides visibility to Canadians that their funds are fully backed on the exchange, while protecting privacy and sensitive platform information.

Insurance Requirements

Establishment of basic insurance standards/strategy, to expand over time. Removing risk to exchange users of any hot wallet theft.


Background and Justifications


Cold Storage Custody/Management
After reviewing close to 100 cases, all thefts tend to break down into more or less the same set of problems:
• Funds stored online or in a smart contract,
• Access controlled by one person or one system,
• 51% attacks (rare),
• Funds sent to the wrong address (also rare), or
• Some combination of the above.
For the first two cases, practical solutions exist and are widely implemented on exchanges already. Offline multi-signature solutions are already industry standard. No cases studied found an external theft or exit scam involving an offline multi-signature wallet implementation. Security can be further improved through minimum numbers of signatories, background checks, providing autonomy and legal protections to each signatory, establishing best practices, and a training/certification program.
The last two transaction risks occur more rarely, and have never resulted in a loss affecting the actual users of the exchange. In all cases to date where operators made the mistake, they've been fully covered by the exchange platforms.
• 51% attacks generally only occur on blockchains with less security. The most prominent cases have been Bitcoin Gold and Ethereum Classic. The simple solution is to enforce deposit limits and block delays such that a 51% attack is not cost-effective.
• The risk of transactions to incorrect addresses can be eliminated by a simple test transaction policy on large transactions. By sending a small amount of funds prior to any large withdrawals/transfers as a standard practice, the accuracy of the wallet address can be validated.
The proposal covers all loss cases and goes beyond, while avoiding significant additional costs, risks, and limitations which may be associated with other frameworks like SOC II.

On The Subject of Third Party Custodians
Many Canadian platforms are currently experimenting with third party custody. From the standpoint of the exchange operator, they can liberate themselves from some responsibility of custody, passing that off to someone else. For regulators, it puts crypto in similar categorization to oil, gold, and other commodities, with some common standards. Platform users would likely feel greater confidence if the custodian was a brand they recognized. If the custodian was knowledgeable and had a decent team that employed multi-sig, they could keep assets safe from internal theft. With the right protections in place, this could be a great solution for many exchanges, particularly those that lack the relevant experience or human resources for their own custody systems.
However, this system is vulnerable to anyone able to impersonate the exchange operators. You may have a situation where different employees who don't know each other that well are interacting between different companies (both the custodian and all their customers which presumably isn't just one exchange). A case study of what can go wrong in this type of environment might be Bitpay, where the CEO was tricked out of 5000 bitcoins over 3 separate payments by a series of emails sent legitimately from a breached computer of another company CEO. It's also still vulnerable to the platform being compromised, as in the really large $70M Bitfinex hack, where the third party Bitgo held one key in a multi-sig wallet. The hacker simply authorized the withdrawal using the same credentials as Bitfinex (requesting Bitgo to sign multiple withdrawal transactions). This succeeded even with the use of multi-sig and two heavily security-focused companies, due to the lack of human oversight (basically, hot wallet). Of course, you can learn from these cases and improve the security, but so can hackers improve their deception and at the end of the day, both of these would have been stopped by the much simpler solution of a qualified team who knew each other and employed multi-sig with properly protected keys. It's pretty hard to beat a human being who knows the business and the typical customer behaviour (or even knows their customers personally) at spotting fraud, and the proposed multi-sig means any hacker has to get through the scrutiny of 3 (or more) separate people, all of whom would have proper training including historical case studies.
There are strong arguments both for and against using use of third party custodians. The proposal sets mandatory minimum custody standards would apply regardless if the cold wallet signatories are exchange operators, independent custodians, or a mix of both.

On The Subject Of Insurance
ShakePay has taken the first steps into this new realm (congratulations). There is no question that crypto users could be better protected by the right insurance policies, and it certainly feels better to transact with insured platforms. The steps required to obtain insurance generally place attention in valuable security areas, and in this case included a review from CipherTrace. One of the key solutions in traditional finance comes from insurance from entities such as the CDIC.
However, historically, there wasn't found any actual insurance payout to any cryptocurrency exchange, and there are notable cases where insurance has not paid. With Bitpay, for example, the insurance agent refused because the issue happened to the third party CEO's computer instead of anything to do with Bitpay itself. With the Youbit exchange in South Korea, their insurance claim was denied, and the exchange ultimately ended up instead going bankrupt with all user's funds lost. To quote Matt Johnson in the original Lloyd's article: “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.”
ShakePay's insurance was only reported to cover their cold storage, and “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held”. Physical theft has never, in the history of cryptocurrency exchange cases reviewed, been reported as the cause of loss. From the limited information of the article, ShakePay made it clear their funds are in the hands of a single US custodian, and at least part of their security strategy is to "decline[] to confirm the custodian’s name on the record". While this prevents scrutiny of the custodian, it's pretty silly to speculate that a reasonably competent hacking group couldn't determine who the custodian is. A far more common infiltration strategy historically would be social engineering, which has succeeded repeatedly. A hacker could trick their way into ShakePay's systems and request a fraudulent withdrawal, impersonate ShakePay and request the custodian to move funds, or socially engineer their way into the custodian to initiate the withdrawal of multiple accounts (a payout much larger than ShakePay) exploiting the standard procedures (for example, fraudulently initiating or override the wallet addresses of a real transfer). In each case, nothing was physically stolen and the loss is therefore not covered by insurance.
In order for any insurance to be effective, clear policies have to be established about what needs to be covered. Anything short of that gives Canadians false confidence that they are protected when they aren't in any meaningful way. At this time, the third party insurance market does not appear to provide adequate options or coverage, and effort is necessary to standardize custody standards, which is a likely first step in ultimately setting up an insurance framework.
A better solution compared to third party insurance providers might be for Canadian exchange operators to create their own collective insurance fund, or a specific federal organization similar to the CDIC. Such an organization would have a greater interest or obligation in paying out actual cases, and that would be it's purpose rather than maximizing it's own profit. This would be similar to the SAFU which Binance has launched, except it would cover multiple exchanges. There is little question whether the SAFU would pay out given a breach of Binance, and a similar argument could be made for a insurance fund managed by a collective of exchange operators or a government organization. While a third party insurance provider has the strong market incentive to provide the absolute minimum coverage and no market incentive to payout, an entity managed by exchange operators would have incentive to protect the reputation of exchange operators/the industry, and the government should have the interest of protecting Canadians.

On The Subject of Fractional Reserve
There is a long history of fractional reserve failures, from the first banks in ancient times, through the great depression (where hundreds of fractional reserve banks failed), right through to the 2008 banking collapse referenced in the first bitcoin block. The fractional reserve system allows banks to multiply the money supply far beyond the actual cash (or other assets) in existence, backed only by a system of debt obligations of others. Safely supporting a fractional reserve system is a topic of far greater complexity than can be addressed by a simple policy, and when it comes to cryptocurrency, there is presently no entity reasonably able to bail anyone out in the event of failure. Therefore, this framework is addressed around entities that aim to maintain 100% backing of funds.
There may be some firms that desire but have failed to maintain 100% backing. In this case, there are multiple solutions, including outside investment, merging with other exchanges, or enforcing a gradual restoration plan. All of these solutions are typically far better than shutting down the exchange, and there are multiple cases where they've been used successfully in the past.

Proof of Reserves/Transparency/Accountability
Canadians need to have visibility into the backing on an ongoing basis.
The best solution for crypto-assets is a Proof of Reserve. Such ideas go back all the way to 2013, before even Mt. Gox. However, no Canadian exchange has yet implemented such a system, and only a few international exchanges (CoinFloor in the UK being an example) have. Many firms like Kraken, BitBuy, and now ShakePay use the Proof of Reserve term to refer to lesser proofs which do not actually cryptographically prove the full backing of all user assets on the blockchain. In order for a Proof of Reserve to be effective, it must actually be a complete proof, and it needs to be understood by the public that is expected to use it. Many firms have expressed reservations about the level of transparency required in a complete Proof of Reserve (for example Kraken here). While a complete Proof of Reserves should be encouraged, and there are some solutions in the works (ie TxQuick), this is unlikely to be suitable universally for all exchange operators and users.
Given the limitations, and that firms also manage fiat assets, a more traditional audit process makes more sense. Some Canadian exchanges (CoinSquare, CoinBerry) have already subjected themselves to annual audits. However, these results are not presently shared publicly, and there is no guarantee over the process including all user assets or the integrity and independence of the auditor. The auditor has been typically not known, and in some cases, the identity of the auditor is protected by a NDA. Only in one case (BitBuy) was an actual report generated and publicly shared. There has been no attempt made to validate that user accounts provided during these audits have been complete or accurate. A fraudulent fractional exchange, or one which had suffered a breach they were unwilling to publicly accept (see CoinBene), could easily maintain a second set of books for auditors or simply exclude key accounts to pass an individual audit.
The proposed solution would see a reporting standard which includes at a minimum - percentage of backing for each asset relative to account balances and the nature of how those assets are stored, with ownership proven by the auditor. The auditor would also publicly provide a "hash list", which they independently generate from the accounts provided by the exchange. Every exchange user can then check their information against this public "hash list". A hash is a one-way form of encryption, which fully protects the private information, yet allows anyone who knows that information already to validate that it was included. Less experienced users can take advantage of public tools to calculate the hash from their information (provided by the exchange), and thus have certainty that the auditor received their full balance information. Easy instructions can be provided.
Auditors should be impartial, their identities and process public, and they should be rotated so that the same auditor is never used twice in a row. Balancing the cost of auditing against the needs for regular updates, a 6 month cycle likely makes the most sense.

Hot Wallet Management
The best solution for hot wallets is not to use them. CoinBerry reportedly uses multi-sig on all withdrawals, and Bitmex is an international example known for their structure devoid of hot wallets.
However, many platforms and customers desire fast withdrawal processes, and human validation has a cost of time and delay in this process.
A model of self-insurance or separate funds for hot wallets may be used in these cases. Under this model, a platform still has 100% of their client balance in cold storage and holds additional funds in hot wallets for quick withdrawal. Thus, the risk of those hot wallets is 100% on exchange operators and not affecting the exchange users. Since most platforms typically only have 1%-5% in hot wallets at any given time, it shouldn't be unreasonable to build/maintain these additional reserves over time using exchange fees or additional investment. Larger withdrawals would still be handled at regular intervals from the cold storage.
Hot wallet risks have historically posed a large risk and there is no established standard to guarantee secure hot wallets. When the government of South Korea dispatched security inspections to multiple exchanges, the results were still that 3 of them got hacked after the inspections. If standards develop such that an organization in the market is willing to insure the hot wallets, this could provide an acceptable alternative. Another option may be for multiple exchange operators to pool funds aside for a hot wallet insurance fund. Comprehensive coverage standards must be established and maintained for all hot wallet balances to make sure Canadians are adequately protected.

Current Draft Proposal

(1) Proper multi-signature cold wallet storage.
(a) Each private key is the personal and legal responsibility of one person - the “signatory”. Signatories have special rights and responsibilities to protect user assets. Signatories are trained and certified through a course covering (1) past hacking and fraud cases, (2) proper and secure key generation, and (3) proper safekeeping of private keys. All private keys must be generated and stored 100% offline by the signatory. If even one private keys is ever breached or suspected to be breached, the wallet must be regenerated and all funds relocated to a new wallet.
(b) All signatories must be separate background-checked individuals free of past criminal conviction. Canadians should have a right to know who holds their funds. All signing of transactions must take place with all signatories on Canadian soil or on the soil of a country with a solid legal system which agrees to uphold and support these rules (from an established white-list of countries which expands over time).
(c) 3-5 independent signatures are required for any withdrawal. There must be 1-3 spare signatories, and a maximum of 7 total signatories. The following are all valid combinations: 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.
(d) A security audit should be conducted to validate the cold wallet is set up correctly and provide any additional pertinent information. The primary purpose is to ensure that all signatories are acting independently and using best practices for private key storage. A report summarizing all steps taken and who did the audit will be made public. Canadians must be able to validate the right measures are in place to protect their funds.
(e) There is a simple approval process if signatories wish to visit any country outside Canada, with a potential whitelist of exempt countries. At most 2 signatories can be outside of aligned jurisdiction at any given time. All exchanges would be required to keep a compliant cold wallet for Canadian funds and have a Canadian office if they wish to serve Canadian customers.
(2) Regular and transparent solvency audits.
(a) An audit must be conducted at founding, after 3 months of operation, and at least once every 6 months to compare customer balances against all stored cryptocurrency and fiat balances. The auditor must be known, independent, and never the same twice in a row.
(b) An audit report will be published featuring the steps conducted in a readable format. This should be made available to all Canadians on the exchange website and on a government website. The report must include what percentage of each customer asset is backed on the exchange, and how those funds are stored.
(c) The auditor will independently produce a hash of each customer's identifying information and balance as they perform the audit. This will be made publicly available on the exchange and government website, along with simplified instructions that each customer can use to verify that their balance was included in the audit process.
(d) The audit needs to include a proof of ownership for any cryptocurrency wallets included. A satoshi test (spending a small amount) or partially signed transaction both qualify.
(e) Any platform without 100% reserves should be assessed on a regular basis by a government or industry watchdog. This entity should work to prevent any further drop, support any private investor to come in, or facilitate a merger so that 100% backing can be obtained as soon as possible.
(3) Protections for hot wallets and transactions.
(a) A standardized list of approved coins and procedures will be established to constitute valid cold storage wallets. Where a multi-sig process is not natively available, efforts will be undertaken to establish a suitable and stable smart contract standard. This list will be expanded and improved over time. Coins and procedures not on the list are considered hot wallets.
(b) Hot wallets can be backed by additional funds in cold storage or an acceptable third-party insurance provider with a comprehensive coverage policy.
(c) Exchanges are required to cover the full balance of all user funds as denominated in the same currency, or double the balance as denominated in bitcoin or CAD using an established trading rate. If the balance is ever insufficient due to market movements, the firm must rectify this within 24 hours by moving assets to cold storage or increasing insurance coverage.
(d) Any large transactions (above a set threshold) from cold storage to any new wallet addresses (not previously transacted with) must be tested with a smaller transaction first. Deposits of cryptocurrency must be limited to prevent economic 51% attacks. Any issues are to be covered by the exchange.
(e) Exchange platforms must provide suitable authentication for users, including making available approved forms of two-factor authentication. SMS-based authentication is not to be supported. Withdrawals must be blocked for 48 hours in the event of any account password change. Disputes on the negligence of exchanges should be governed by case law.

Steps Forward

Continued review of existing OSC feedback is still underway. More feedback and opinions on the framework and ideas as presented here are extremely valuable. The above is a draft and not finalized.
The process of further developing and bringing a suitable framework to protect Canadians will require the support of exchange operators, legal experts, and many others in the community. The costs of not doing such are tremendous. A large and convoluted framework, one based on flawed ideas or implementation, or one which fails to properly safeguard Canadians is not just extremely expensive and risky for all Canadians, severely limiting to the credibility and reputation of the industry, but an existential risk to many exchanges.
The responsibility falls to all of us to provide our insight and make our opinions heard on this critical matter. Please take the time to give your thoughts.
submitted by azoundria2 to QuadrigaInitiative [link] [comments]

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

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1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
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Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

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Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
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The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
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One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
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However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
https://preview.redd.it/axg3wayag3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=93d958fa6b0e623caa82ca71fe457b4daa88c71e
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]

Newdex Creates A One-Stop Service For Users

Originally posted by ankarlie :
https://steemit.com/eos/@ankarlie/newdex-creates-a-one-stop-service-for-users-fa5ab781031d5est
Newdex is a new kind of Decentralized Exchange that is able to provide unprecedented user experience of decentralized trading, which is only possible with highly scalable blockchain technology. The previous generation decentralized exchanges are not able to do this due to blockchain technological limitations their DEX are based on. The Newdex team chose to build on top of one of the most scalable blockchains known in the industry, EOS and has been continuously improving its DEX adding features after features to bring more value into its ecosystem.
On-chain Execution
It has become the world’s leading decentralized exchange that features on-chain matching and settlement) through the utilization of smart contracts. In simple words, all trading activities done on the exchange are triggered and recorded in the EOS high-performance blockchain achieving a whole new level of trust without the wait and associated cost seen in previous blockchain generations. This makes fast and high-frequency trading not only possible but feasible due to the EOS’ unique transactionless design and resource allocations. More importantly, data in the DEX are transparent and immutable.
Non-Custodial Trading
It also features non-custodial trading where users never lose custody of their digital assets, not until the moment the conditions of their trades are met and thereby executed. By doing so the exchange does not attract unwanted attention from hackers looking for their next crypto honeypot to exploit. Since wallets used in Newdex are non-custodial wallets there will never be a point where users can be restricted from access of their own digital assets. Unlike centralized exchanges, Newdex does not ask for the custodianship of tokens. While there are some feature in Newdex that requires locking up of some assets, unlocking them are within the power of users and does not require access to Newdex website.
Zero Deposit and Withdrawal Fees
Additionally, deposits and withdrawals in Newdex are instant and users will never be charged with fees. This allows frictionless trading within its platform and presents a quick way of having access to all available digital assets in the non-custodial wallet that has been linked. Once wallets are linked all cryptocurrencies contained in the wallet will immediately be detected by Newdex for immediate trading. This is a more efficient and cost-effective way of having access to digital assets. CEX requires users to send each of the assets one by one which is not only cumbersome but also costly as users have to spent transfer fees or resources to send them.
Private Keys not required
As an additional layer of security, Newdex decentralized bourse will never ask for the private keys of its users. Instead, users can log in using the widest range of wallets available for EOS, EOS sidechains, and TRON. This is one of the most striking features of Newdex as it essentially supports almost all types of login options for all supported platforms. Desktop wallets, Chrome extension wallets, and mobile wallets can be used to login to its DEX without having to ask the users to reveal their private keys. This highlights Newdex’s emphasis on security, privacy, and ease of use.
Pervasive
Newdex has become the quintessential DEX in EOS space becoming the go-to listing partner of many EOS-based projects and has been supported by virtually every wallet service provider that supports EOS. This demonstrates the market penetration of Newdex and the reputation it has gained throughout its existence. Its presence and market influence is the direct result of providing the first truly global decentralized exchange based on EOS and continuously building on its brand by providing high quality, relevant and timely products, and services.
Newdex Platform Ecological Token (NDX)
Newdex issued its own utility token dubbed as the Newdex platform Ecological Token (NDX). Its primary purpose is to serve as the platform’s primary currency for services its offers. These include VIP membership Fee, repurchase and destruction, staking concessions, Token airdrops, advertising bidding, independent listing and more. It is currently listed in Newdex with pairs of NDX/EOS and NDX/USDT. Recently it has been used to rewards those who opted to undergo identity verification for OTC services of the Newdex Platform.
Newdex Free CPU trades for VIP members
Newdex has been built on top of one of the most scalable and feature-filled blockchains in the entire cryptocurrency ecosystem. To elevate the trading experience of its users further, Newdex is giving its users limited Free CPU placing order in trades depending on their VIP levels. The CPU-free placing order time as shown below:
📷
This would allow its traders to execute trades without having to worry on having enough CPU-time EOS resources.
Multilingual
Newdex is designed to be a frictionless and borderless decentralized exchange, as such, it offers multilingual support to cover all the most active crypto trading jurisdiction in the world. Currently, it supports English, Korean, Chinese and Chinese tranditional. It is expected that more languages will be supported in the future as Newdex expands to new markets.
Simple yet Power User Interface (UI)
One of the first things users will notice about Newdex is its simple yet powerful user interface (UI) that enables them to gain access to all important features easily and conveniently. Its design is clean and purposeful without excess information clottering the screen enabling users to concentrate on what they are doing. The additional features of the DEX are carefully tucked away but easily accessible through the many non-intrusive menus buttons smartly positioned for optimal use. Hidden behind this elegant UI is a new breed of decentralized exchange that truly raises the bar of excellence in Decentralized Finance (DEFI) particularly the DEX sector.
Multi-Chain Trading
The recent support for TRON reveals its openness and intent of supporting other high-performance public blockchains to achieve multi-chain trading. This opens up unlimited opportunities for growth for Newdex not only in terms of partnerships with other blockchain projects but also in terms of user base as each of these projects typically has its own supporters and believers. The willingness of the Newdex Team to work in both EOS and TRON platform demonstrates their flexibility and agility to react to current market conditions in a meaningful and timely fashion.
Excellent Tech support
To give the very best tech support to its users, Newdex has hired the services of Zendesk, a software company that is headquartered in San Francisco and listed on the New York Stock Exchange. The support page is very well organized and response times are top-notch. Nothing less is be expected from a professional tech support team. The same company is also used by many well-established blockchain-based companies who want professional-level services for its tech support.
Highly ranked among dApps Trading Platforms
📷
It comes to no surprise that Newdex has consistently ranked on top of dApps data services providers, such as the Dappradar, in terms of the trading volume. This makes them the top EOS-based DEX in the space. This is just a confirmation of what we already knew about Newdex and about its team who tirelessly seek out new innovative products and services with the purpose of bringing to the crypto trading community the very best of what DEX trading has to offer. But wait there is more! Its newest innovation is explained in the next section where it tries to marry traditional and blockchain-based fintech together.
How to Join the Newdex OTC marketplace?
Regulatory compliance requires the Newdex team to ask its users to accomplish KYC and AML procedures before they can avail of the OTC services. Prospective users are required to declare their identity, contact information and to submit proof to validate the information submitted. Once this information has been approved users can start using the OTC market.
While the Newdex team values the privacy of its customers they also acknowledge the need for such procedures for the safety of its users since the service entails interaction with government-issued assets (fiat) as well as to be able to resolve disputes when the need arises. Currently, the platform only offers Renminbi or the Chinese Yuan CNY for fiat purchases and has expressed the intention to expand to other fiat options in the near future.
NDX Rewards For OTC Participants
As a way to celebrate the launch of their OTC services and to rewards participants who undergo KYC procedures the Newdex Team have initiated the Newdex OTC NDX Rewards Program. Users who will participate in Identity Verification Procedures will receive NDX. The program started November 25, 2019, and will end at 9:00 am Decemver 16, 2019 (UTC).
There are two activities where users can join and they are allowed to join both so long as they qualify. Rewards are limited and will be distributed based on a first come first serve basis. Since the rewards program is sponsored by Newdex, their final interpretation of the results of the rewards program are final and cannot be reconsidered.
The first activity (Activity 1) is the real name verification. The total rewards for this activity is 2,500 NDX
Activity Rules: During the activity, users who log in to Newdex and complete the real name verification on the OTC fiat trading page can claim NDX reward:
Reward 500 NDX via completing the primary verification (3,000 openings).
Reward 2,000 NDX via completing the intermediate verification (3,000 openings).
The second activity (Activity 2) is the fiat trading which has a total reward of 2,200 NDX
Activity Rules: During the activity, users who log in to Newdex and complete EOS or USDT trading on the OTC fiat trading page can claim NDX reward:
One time reward of 200 NDX for a single order ≥ 50 EOS/150 USDT
One time reward of 2,000 NDX for a single order ≥ 500 EOS/1500 USDT
Newdex’s One-Stop Service
Newdex has proven once again why it is the leading high-performance decentralized exchange in the space as follows:
Providing scalable decentralized exchange trading
Instant and Secure
Non-custodial
On-Chain matching and Settlement
Transparent and Immutable
No Deposits and Withdrawals Fees
Top-rated trading dApps
Highest trading volumes
Most supported DEX by top wallet service providers
Offering the widest range of EOS-based tokens including EOS Native Tokens and EOS Sidechains
Multichain Trading
Added Support to Tron-based Tokens
Plans to support other high-performance blockchains
Providing innovative opportunities for its users
Newpool multichain staking pool
Widest range of EOS-based Stablecoins offering
OTC trading desk for fiat trading
The list goes on......
The diverse and extensive product/service offerings from Newdex have truly created a One-Stop Service where users can enjoy the fullest benefit of their digital assets as well as opening the floodgates of OTC fiat trading. With this new service, it has empowered its users the flexibility to conduct trades with both blockchain-based and fiat assets.
For more information about Newdex please follow its official links below:
Website: https://newdex.io/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/NewdexOfficial
Medium: https://medium.com/@marketing_27690
Let's Connect!!!
submitted by rillita to eos [link] [comments]

I wrote a 30,000 ft. "executive summary" intro document for cryptos. Not for you, for your non-technical parents or friends.

This document was originally written for my dad, an intelligent guy who was utterly baffled about the cryptocurrency world. The aim was to be extremely concise, giving a broad overview of the industry and some popular coins while staying non-technical. For many of you there will be nothing new here, but recognize that you are in the 0.001% of the population heavily into crypto technology.
I've reproduced it for Reddit below, or you can find the original post here on my website. Download the PDF there or hit the direct link: .PDF version.
Donations happily accepted:
ETH: 0x4e03Bf5CCE3eec4Ddae4d3d6aAD46ca4f198AeD6 BTC: 1GqWMZRRygRJJWYYTWHkAVoRcgyQHjgBMZ XMR: 42Y1S1KBoPk381kc7hA68zaiC78BxMoCADjLrFcTdWiE7ejhZc49s1t9i7P2EmTnHsLDiKoSUiogCbLVHXRJxjrCT4WG8ic XRB: xrb_1bpzh745s9kzk8ymfnks3jtdi65ayumdstokzd4yw4ohu3fopxmiocjcntcu 

Background

This document is purely informational. At the time of writing there are over 1000 cryptocurrencies (“cryptos”) in a highly volatile, high risk market. Many of the smaller “altcoins” require significant technical knowledge to store and transact safely. I advise you to carefully scrutinize each crypto’s flavor of blockchain, potential utility, team of developers, and guiding philosophy, before making any investment [1] decisions. With that out of the way, what follows are brief, extremely high-level summaries of some cryptos which have my interest, listed in current market cap order. But first, some info:
Each crypto is a different implementation of a blockchain network. Originally developed as decentralized digital cash, these technologies have evolved into much broader platforms, powering the future of decentralized applications across every industry in the global economy. Without getting into the weeds, [2] most cryptos work on similar principles:
Distributed Ledgers Each node on a blockchain network has a copy of every transaction, which enables a network of trust that eliminates fraud. [3]
Decentralized “Miners” comprise the infrastructure of a blockchain network. [4] They are monetarily incentivized to add computing power to the network, simultaneously securing and processing each transaction. [5]
Peer-to-peer Cryptos act like digital cash-- they require no third party to transact and are relatively untraceable. Unlike cash, you can back them up.
Global Transactions are processed cheaply and instantly, anywhere on Earth. Using cryptos, an African peasant and a San Francisco engineer have the same access to capital, markets, and network services.
Secure Blockchains are predicated on the same cryptographic technology that secures your sensitive data and government secrets. They have passed seven years of real-world penetration testing with no failures. [6]

Bitcoin (BTC)

The first cryptocurrency. As with first movers in any technology, there are associated pros and cons. Bitcoin has by far the strongest brand recognition and deepest market penetration, and it is the only crypto which can be used directly as a currency at over 100,000 physical and web stores around the world. In Venezuela and Zimbabwe, where geopolitical events have created hyperinflation in the centralized fiat currency, citizens have moved to Bitcoin as a de facto transaction standard. [7]
However, Bitcoin unveiled a number of issues that have been solved by subsequent cryptos. It is experiencing significant scaling issues, resulting in high fees and long confirmation times. The argument over potential solutions created a rift in the Bitcoin developer community, who “forked” the network into two separate blockchains amidst drama and politicking in October 2017. Potential solutions to these issues abound, with some already in place, and others nearing deployment.
Bitcoin currently has the highest market cap, and since it is easy to buy with fiat currency, the price of many smaller cryptos (“altcoins”) are loosely pegged to its price. This will change in the coming year(s).

Ethereum (ETH)

Where Bitcoin is a currency, Ethereum is a platform, designed as a foundational protocol on which to develop decentralized applications (“Dapps”). Anyone can write code and deploy their program on the global network for extremely low fees. Just like Twitter wouldn’t exist without the open platform of the internet, the next world-changing Dapp can’t exist without Ethereum.
Current Dapps include a global market for idle computing power and storage, peer-to-peer real estate transactions (no trusted third party for escrow), identity networks for governments and corporations (think digital Social Security card), and monetization strategies for the internet which replace advertising. Think back 10 years to the advent of smartphones, and then to our culture today-- Ethereum could have a similar network effect on humanity.
Ethereum is currently the #2 market cap crypto below Bitcoin, and many believe it will surpass it in 2018. It has a large, active group of developers working to solve scaling issues, [8] maintain security, and create entirely new programming conventions. If successful, platforms like Ethereum may well be the foundation of the decentralized internet of the future.

Ripple (XRP)

Ripple is significantly more centralized than most crypto networks, designed as a backbone for the global banking and financial technology (“fintech”) industries. It is a network for exchanging between fiat currencies and other asset classes instantly and cheaply, especially when transacting cross-border and between separate institutions. It uses large banks and remittance companies as “anchors” to allow trading between any asset on the network, and big names like Bank of America, American Express, RBC, and UBS are partners. The utility of this network is global and massive in scale.
It is extremely important to note that not all cryptos have the same number of tokens. Ripple has 100 Billion tokens compared to Bitcoin’s 21 Million. Do not directly compare price between cryptos. XRP will likely never reach $1k, [9] but the price will rise commensurate with its utility as a financial tool.
In some sense, Ripple is anathema to the original philosophical vision of this technology space. And while I agree with the cyberpunk notion of decentralized currencies, separation of money and state, this is the natural progression of the crypto world. The internet was an incredible decentralized wild west of Usenet groups and listservs before Eternal September and the dot-com boom, but its maturation affected every part of global society.

Cardano (ADA)

Cardano’s main claim to fame: it is the only crypto developed using academic methodologies by a global collective of engineers and researchers, built on a foundation of industry-leading, peer-reviewed cryptographic research. The network was designed from first-principles to allow scalability, system upgrades, and to balance the privacy of its users with the security needs of regulators.
One part of this ecosystem is the Cardano Foundation, a Swiss non-profit founded to work proactively with governments and regulatory bodies to institute legal frameworks around the crypto industry. Detractors of Cardano claim that it doesn’t do anything innovative, but supporters see the academic backing and focus on regulation development as uniquely valuable.

Stellar Lumens (XLM)

Stellar Lumens and Ripple were founded by the same person. They initially shared the same code, but today the two are distinct in their technical back-end as well as their guiding philosophy and development goals. Ripple is closed-source, for-profit, deflationary, and intended for use by large financial institutions. Stellar is open-source, non-profit, inflationary, and intended to promote international wealth distribution. As such, they are not direct competitors.
IBM is a major partner to Stellar. Their network is already processing live transactions in 12 currency corridors across the South Pacific, with plans to process 60% of all cross-border payments in the South Pacific’s retail foreign exchange corridor by Q2 2018.
Beyond its utility as a financial tool, the Stellar network may become a competitor to Ethereum as a platform for application development and Initial Coin Offerings (“ICOs”). The theoretical maximum throughput for the network is higher, and it takes less computational power to run. The Stellar development team is highly active, has written extensive documentation for third-party developers, and has an impressive list of advisors, including Patrick Collison (Stripe), Sam Altman (Y Combinator), and other giants in the software development community.

Iota (IOT)

Iota was developed as the infrastructure backbone for the Internet of Things (IoT), sometimes called the machine economy. As the world of inanimate objects is networked together, their need to communicate grows exponentially. Fridges, thermostats, self-driving cars, printers, planes, and industrial sensors all need a secure protocol with which to transact information.
Iota uses a “Tangle” instead of a traditional blockchain, and this is the main innovation driving the crypto’s value. Each device that sends a transaction confirms two other transactions in the Tanlge. This removes the need for miners, and enables unique features like zero fees and infinite scalability. The supply of tokens is fixed forever at 2.8*1015, a staggeringly large number (almost three thousand trillion), and the price you see reported is technically “MIOT”, or the price for a million tokens.

Monero (XMR)

The most successful privacy-focused cryptocurrency. In Bitcoin and most other cryptos, anyone can examine the public ledger and trace specific coins through the network. If your identity can be attached to a public address on that network, an accurate picture of your transaction history can be built-- who, what, and when. Monero builds anonymity into the system using strong cryptographic principles, which makes it functionally impossible to trace coins, [10] attach names to wallets, or extract metadata from transactions. The development team actively publishes in the cryptography research community.
Anonymous transactions are not new-- we call it cash. Only in the past two decades has anonymity grown scarce in the first-world with the rise of credit cards and ubiquitous digital records. Personal data is becoming the most valuable resource on Earth, and there are many legitimate reasons for law-abiding citizens to want digital privacy, but it is true that with anonymity comes bad actors-- Monero is the currency of choice for the majority of black market (“darknet”) transactions. Similarly, US Dollars are the main vehicle for the $320B annual drug trade. An investment here should be based on the underlying cryptographic research and technology behind this coin, as well as competitors like Zcash. [11]

RaiBlocks (XRB)

Zero fees and instantaneous transfer make RaiBlocks extremely attractive for exchange of value, in many senses outperforming Bitcoin at its original intended purpose. This crypto has seen an explosion in price and exposure over the past month, and it may become the network of choice for transferring value within and between crypto exchanges.
Just in the first week of 2018: the CEO of Ledger (makers of the most popular hardware wallet on the market) waived the $50k code review fee to get RaiBlocks on his product, and XRB got listed on Binance and Kucoin, two of the largest altcoin exchanges globally. This is one to watch for 2018. [12]

VeChain (VEN)

Developed as a single answer to the problem of supply-chain logistics, VeChain is knocking on the door of a fast-growing $8 trillion industry. Every shipping container and packaged product in the world requires constant tracking and verification. A smart economy for logistics built on the blockchain promises greater efficiency and lower cost through the entire process flow.
Don’t take my word for it-- VeChain has investment from PwC (5th largest US corporation), Groupe Renault, Kuehne & Nagel (world’s largest freight company), and DIG (China’s largest wine importer). The Chinese government has mandated VeChain to serve as blockchain technology partner to the city of Gui’an, a special economic zone and testbed for China’s smart city of the future. This crypto has some of the strongest commercial partnerships in the industry, and a large active development team.
  1. “Investment” is a misnomer. Cryptos are traded like securities, but grant you no equity (like trading currency).
  2. The weeds for Bitcoin: basic intro (1:36), non-technical explanation (5:24), Bitcoin 101 – Andreas Antonopoulos (23:51).
  3. It is impossible to double-spend or create a fake transaction, as each ledger is confirmed against every other ledger.
  4. Some utility token blockchains use DAG networks or similar non-linear networks which don’t require mining.
  5. In practice, these are giant warehouses full of specialized computers constantly processing transactions. Miners locate to the cheapest electricity source, and the bulk of mining currently occurs in China.
  6. Centralized second-layer exchange websites have been hacked, but the core technology is untouched.
  7. This effect has been termed "bitcoinization".
  8. The Ethereum roadmap shows moving from a Proof of Work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus model.
  9. At $2.62 per XRP token, Ripple already commands a $100B market cap.
  10. After a January 2017 update.
  11. Monero uses ring signatures while Zcash uses ZK-SNARKs to create anonymity. Both have pros and cons.
  12. Note: all signs point to this crypto being renamed “Nano” in the coming weeks: nano.co.
submitted by jhchawk to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

spec shitshow #5

one of the few who still reads these?  
I don't have to be PC so let me just say it how it is:
Young naive writer https://twitter.com/AlyssaHertig gets handed narrative by the paper. Writes some stupid shit, gets paid by VC indirectly for protecting the portfolio (because IOTA is a threat to the entire portfolio). Slap a graphic on top of it. Done.
I agree that there is no "grand conspiracy" to damage the IF. It's regular business for coindesk at this point.
https://www.coindesk.com/iota-2-7-billion-cryptocurrency-developers-love-hate/
 
Attacking IOTA on a scientific level ended with self inflicted academic fraud (allegedly), exposing bad actors and destroyed reputations, while educating the IOTA community about the protocol itself. If the media didn't spin the DCI/IOTA incident, it would have been an absolute PR bloodbath for DCI. The new angle is: hurt the IF by making it look like a toxic environment for developers.
That's why month old screenshots are being digged out. This is FUD with surgical precision because developers engaging with the IOTA protocol is one of the more underrated but really fucking important factors.
Thanks to the first steps in making the IF more transparent however, we now know over that 1300+ developers/creators are part of the Ecosystem. https://ecosystem.iota.org
 
Yes, you should boycott Coindesk. No, it's not childish. You should generally avoid all bad press as it's a waste of time.
 
If the first newspaper you’ve read was on an iPad you might not know this: Serious newspapers label articles, in which the writer states his/her opinion on the topic he/she is reporting on, AS SUCH. Those are often referred to as “Opinion Pieces” or a “Comment”. However...
 
Most crypto news sites are simply a vehicle to push undisclosed native advertisement
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_advertising
[Native advertising is a type of advertising, mostly online, that matches the form and function of the platform upon which it appears.] ...
[a clear disclosure is deemed necessary when employing native marketing strategy in order to protect the consumer from being deceived] ... [According to Federal Trade Commission, means of disclosure include visual cues, labels, and other techniques.[8]]
 
here is a good example of a native advertisement: https://www.coindesk.com/circle-adds-zcash-crypto-investment-app/
 
If a news outlet is NOT even labeling opinion pieces as such - it’s not worth your time. It will add more confusion than clarity. Because that’s what it’s designed to do.
Let's see if we can spot the difference between professional and fraud:
  1. https://www.finder.com.au/fujitsu-showcases-iota-cryptocurrency-as-new-automation-standard    
  2. https://thenextweb.com/hardfork/2018/04/28/iota-university-college-london-ucl/
see how finder.com.au is very clear about everything? Opinion and disclosure? TNW not so much...
ok, let's never talk about this again! Let's finally move on.
 
We should stay healthy skeptics towards corporate adoption. Friendly reminder the IF exists mainly to push back on corporate agendas.
For all we know, some just do it for the extra likes on twitter because of a #IOTA hashtag. Rarely do corporate SM accounts enjoy this kind of attention.
If you think i'm being anti-corporate libtardish, consider this: Industry 4.0 needs IOTA more than IOTA needs them. https://twitter.com/Schuldensuehnestatus/989738856298659841 Not only to stay competitive but also to not get hacked and shut down by “insert country”. Bosch, Fujitsu and DXC are maybe the first to realize this. SO PLEASE stop begging on social media and tweeting at Elon Musk about IOTA. It’s not a good look.
 
that being said:  
Institutional money and regulation is the hot topic right now. And most likely will be during 2018. BTC Futures showed a recent spike in Volume hinting at smart money flowing in: https://twitter.com/CryptoKinky/status/989569263383011328 (dont judge me for my resources i cant afford nice looking charts)
There are several news articles about WS traders moving to crypto and so on. Looks like things are starting to get rolling in the institutional world, as infrastructure is being set up.
Contrary to popular tinfoilery belief (aka. "The Cartel" Medium Article, that all of Bitcoin is 100% manipulated already based on future contracts), futures had relatively small volume compared to the global btc volume - most likely not important enough to justify manipulation of the entire market.
https://bitcoinaverage.com/en/bitcoin-price/btc-to-usd (global volume)
 
Even the SEC Chairman Jay Clayton stated that futures market is "quite small" in his public statement before the february hearing:
https://www.cftc.gov/PressRoom/SpeechesTestimony/opagiancarlo37
It is important to put the new Bitcoin futures market in perspective. It is quite small with open interest at the CME of 6,695 bitcoin14 and at Cboe Futures Exchange (Cboe) of 5,569 bitcoin (as of Feb. 2, 2018). At a price of approximately $7,700 per Bitcoin,15 this represents a notional amount of about $94 million.
 
If you believe in a paradigm shift, this means we are still early.
 
Recent regulatory voices and twitter drama led to this piece by https://coincenter.org/entry/no-ether-is-not-a-security
Why is this important? Companies in the US most likely are patient about making an investment into any crypto token as there is regulatory uncertainty.
DXC TECHNOLOGY COMPANY, showcased a PoC with IOTA. At Q4 in december, DXC has stated:
213 Million in Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/1688568/000168856818000007/dxc1231201710-q.htm
Just some food for thought:
If you are already spending opportunity cost on IOTA, why wouldn't you leverage that with the token. Bosch invested into the token as well, most likely because there is more regulatory certainty in germany. Fujitsu wants to roll out IOTA as an industry standard (as it seems). This is not your regular Shitcoin. There is a reason dumb money is called dumb. Last time i check Verge had 10x the volume on binance compared to IOTA.
 
There are no fundamentals yet in evaluation, it’s purely speculative - but with more institutions moving into the space this might change. As such, CCs with industrial use could likely see a reevaluation. But, looking in from the outside, there seem to be some hurdles.
this twitter account is one of the more resourceful ones, he lets out some numbers to boost his SM traction (god bless him) https://twitter.com/joel_john95
as outsiders, this will be an extremely helpful resource. He tweeted out a quarterly report https://medium.com/outlier-ventures-io/state-of-blockchains-q1-2018-1efe284572c1
he writes: Over $1.8 billion has been invested into firms working with the blockchain ecosystem through corporate venture capital to date.
That’s not that much. Is it. For the entire ecosystem? Friendly reminder snapchat, after a 20% fall, is a 15 billion company. Just to get some perspective.
 
Especially if you consider the crypto market is still in the hands of leveraged daytraders on bitmex and whales, who got big stacks in a coin early on.
Imagine you want to invest 3M into IOTA as a CVC, you would’t spin up Binance and hit marketorder. You contact the IF and see if you can buy some, or outlier ventures might want to part with some, or even the founders i imagine hold quite a substantial amount.
I often see people asking for more exchanges - that's kinda missing the point. What you want at this point is more institutional interest. That's the kind of demand we want. Thats what you would call "organic growth" i guess.
Ripple holders, thinking a coinbase listening would make XRP go to $10, fail understand that Ripple itself holds a substantial amount of tokens where VCs can go and buy in bulk. And that’s why XRP is such a Shitcoin in the first place.
 
Cool thing about open ledgers is that you can look at them. Go figure. https://arewedecentralizedyet.com/
 
Ripple and XLM look extremely bad with over 90% of coins held in the top 100 addresses (shitcoins confirmed). TRX and EOS don’t even have a mainnet yet to really track it - so you can imagine the numbers are likely shit too. ADA is looking way better than IOTA in terms of wealth distribution. But 60% for whales, IF and Founders is probably better than what most projects can show for.
Thing is, the small guys got in on crypto first. Not the banks, not a selected silicon valley investor boisclub either. While this is good for us, it's a nightmare for investment banks and such.
JPMorgan admitted that in their “BTC Bible” saying:
Ownership is highly concentrated. The opportunity set around direct CC trading appears relatively limited for banks
(Think about that for a second.)
CVC investing into the token could be, in my speculative opinion, the most likely catalyst for the price of IOTA, as its industrial adoption can build a synergy for entire sectors. As the main argument for Bitcoin is price uncorrelation to legacy assets, IOTA might be an interesting pick for the smart money, as it could be one of the few CCs with actual fundamental impact on different industry sectors. Something Blockchain, after 10 years, has failed to do.
Let me summarize because i was a bit all over the place. Things i will look for going forward:
  1. Institutional infrastructure is being built as we speak as regulations get more clear
  2. 2018 might see the highest investments into the blockchain ecosphere
  3. Financial talent from legacy market is switching to crypto
  4. Retail investors are the early adopters, not exclusive silicon valley boiclubs
  5. Liquidity is really bad, its hard to buy a lot of crypto for institutions
  6. The real FOMO and bubble might come with the “smart” money
  7. IF addressing wealth distribution and being more transparent
(i do not have a finance background as you can see and i write these to offer some interesting links and resources you might find useful in your own research.)
submitted by thatleechi to IOTAmarkets [link] [comments]

Why the ~7,000 BTC Withdrawn from the Binance Hot Wallet During the SYS Incident is Not that Suspicious

There's a rumour going around right now that the 7,000 BTC withdrawn from Binance's hot wallet.
Here is the link to the transactions under scrutiny.
Many people are waving this around as evidence that funds were involuntarily withdrawn from Binance’s hot wallet .So far, Binance has not responded to any of these accusations, which has added more fuel to the fire.
This is a clear misconception that I'm going to address.
Understanding Bitcoin Change
When the output of a transaction is used as the input of another transaction, it must be spent in its entirety.
Sometimes the coin value of the output is higher than what the user wishes to pay. In this case, the client generates a new Bitcoin address and sends the difference back. This is known as change.
Just like when you spend $20 to buy a $2 ice cream cone
Binance intelligently batches a bunch of withdrawals and sends all of them out in one transaction. However, it is not uncommon for there to be large amounts of change sent back to Binance’s change address.
https://i.redd.it/9e62u8rfe4a11.png
I used the Blockexplorer API to pull a list of transaction outputs from April 30th to July 6th. Then I sorted them by transaction output in descending order.
https://i.redd.it/7hiuaj1oe4a11.png
As you can see, there a number of large transaction outputs above 2,000 BTC. This is because change is being sent back to the return address.
I’ve uploaded all 77,374 transactions from this wallet here. You can look up the transaction hash on BlockExplorerto confirm it is real.
I’m not saying I know for sure that the withdrawal was authorized by Binance, but high output transactions above 2,000 BTC are not out of the ordinary and is certainly not evidence of theft.
***
I analyze a ton more data about the SYS incident, and compare it against the VIA incident in March.
If you want to read more about what I've found, check out the full article here.
submitted by haggenballs to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

[Daily BAT Discussion] Spinach Dinner - June 20, 2018

June 20, 2018
Hey BAT horsies! Welcome to the Daily BAT Discussion!
Yesterday's Market Movements - Slightly Down
Yesterday's volume slowed down a bit, and the price also declined slightly. There was a point where some large buys pushed us to 3900 satoshis, but afterwards we fell back down to 3700s ($0.25). Volume dropped to 175 BTC on Binance. Rest of the crypto market also maintained sideways action.
We got official confirmation that ad trials have begun. It looks like the first rounds will be for a small number of users only, and public trials will take place in a few months.
Things are definitely moving in the BAT world! Hoo-ra!
BAT's Official Telegram channel
Join us on the official BAT telegram! @BATProject
Current members: 2908
Tutorials
Here are some guides for new people getting into crypto, especially BAT. Invest responsibly!
Daily Discussion Rules
Remember, the permitted topics of discussion include, but are not limited to:
Oh hey, don't forget to upvote!
Disclaimer: All content on BAT Dailies are not affiliated with the official Brave or BAT team, and are solely run and provided by the BAT community unless otherwise stated.
submitted by dragespir to BATProject [link] [comments]

Why the ~7,000 BTC Withdrawn from the Binance Hot Wallet During the SYS Incident is Not that Suspicious

There's a rumour going around right now that the 7,000 BTC withdrawn from Binance's hot wallet.
Here is the link to the transactions under scrutiny.
Many people are waving this around as evidence that funds were involuntarily withdrawn from Binance’s hot wallet .So far, Binance has not responded to any of these accusations, which has added more fuel to the fire.
This is a clear misconception that I'm going to address.
Understanding Bitcoin Change
When the output of a transaction is used as the input of another transaction, it must be spent in its entirety.
Sometimes the coin value of the output is higher than what the user wishes to pay. In this case, the client generates a new Bitcoin address and sends the difference back. This is known as change.
Just like when you spend $20 to buy a $2 ice cream cone
Binance intelligently batches a bunch of withdrawals and sends all of them out in one transaction. However, it is not uncommon for there to be large amounts of change sent back to Binance’s change address.
https://i.redd.it/9e62u8rfe4a11.png
I used the Blockexplorer API to pull a list of transaction outputs from April 30th to July 6th. Then I sorted them by transaction output in descending order.
https://i.redd.it/7hiuaj1oe4a11.png
As you can see, there a number of large transaction outputs above 2,000 BTC. This is because change is being sent back to the return address.
I’ve uploaded all 77,374 transactions from this wallet here. You can look up the transaction hash on BlockExplorer to confirm it is real.
I’m not saying I know for sure that the withdrawal was authorized by Binance, but high output transactions above 2,000 BTC are not out of the ordinary and is certainly not evidence of theft.
***
I analyze a ton more data about the SYS incident, and compare it against the VIA incident in March.
If you want to read more about what I've found, check out the full article here.
submitted by haggenballs to BinanceExchange [link] [comments]

Top 50 Cryptocurrencies

Top 50 Cryptocurrencies
I thought this might be of real help for the ones that are just joining crypto and still want to read.
Let’s face it: there are a lot of cryptocurrencies out there, with new ones coming out almost daily and old ones disappearing seemingly just as fast as they appeared. It’s easy to get overwhelmed.
If you are new to cryptocurrencies, this is an excellent starting point to learn about each of the top 50 cryptocurrencies (by market cap). Even if you’re a crypto veteran, this is a great resource to reference if you ever get any of the top 50 confused, or if you want to read more about a new coin which has joined the ranks.
Our hope is to point you in the right direction, spur your interest to do more research, and steer you away from the potential scams out there (And yes, there are potential scam coins in the top 50!)
Here at Invest In Blockchain, we are obsessed with researching the internet for all things crypto. The information found in this post is the result of hundreds of hours of painstaking research by me and other writers on our team.
Note that this list is constantly changing and I will do my best to keep it up-to-date, but the top 50 moves almost daily! Please refer to coinmarketcap.com for the latest information on the top 50 cryptocurrencies and their prices.
Let’s get started!
(Information accurate as of May 23, 2018)

#1 – Bitcoin (BTC)

📷
The king of the crypto world, Bitcoin is now a household name; to many, it is synonymous with “cryptocurrency”. Its purpose is to provide a peer-to-peer electronic version of cash to allow payments to be sent online without the need for a third party (such as Mastercard).
The rapid rise in Bitcoin’s price has brought about an explosion of new Bitcoin investors. With the huge increase in interest has come a rise in merchants accepting Bitcoin as a legitimate form of payment. Bitcoin is fast moving towards its goal of becoming a currency accepted worldwide.
Bitcoin’s development is led by Bitcoin Core developer Wladimir J. van der Laan, who took over the role on April 8, 2014. Bitcoin’s changes are decided democratically by the community.
For an in-depth look at Bitcoin, including an explanation of Bitcoin mining, Bitcoin’s history, an analysis of Bitcoins’ value and a description on how bitcoin actually works, see our comprehensive guide “What is Bitcoin? Everything You Need to Know About Bitcoin, Explained“.
For a more detailed description of Bitcoin’s economics, what makes money and how Bitcoin works in the economy as a whole see: “Bitcoin Explained” and “Bitcoin is a Deflationary Currency”.

#2 – Ethereum (ETH)

📷
Ethereum is the revolutionary platform which brought the concept of “smart contracts” to the blockchain. First released to the world in July 2015 by then 21-year-old Vitalik Buterin, Ethereum has quickly risen from obscurity to cryptocurrency celebrity status.
Buterin has a full team of developers working behind him to further develop the Ethereum platform. For more background information on Buterin, read our article, “Vitalik Buterin: The Face of Blockchain”.
Ethereum has the ability to process transactions quickly and cheaply over the blockchain similar to Bitcoin, but also has the ability to run smart contracts. For future reading on smart contracts, see “What’s the Difference Between Bitcoin and Ethereum”; but for now, think automated processes which can do just about anything.
For further reading on Ethereum, including an analysis of the platform’s strengths and future prospects, read “What is Ethereum, Everything You Need to Know Explained“.

#3 – Ripple (XRP)

📷
Ripple aims to improve the speed of financial transactions, specifically international banking transactions.
Anyone who has ever sent money internationally knows that today it currently takes anywhere from 3-5 business days for a transaction to clear. It is faster to withdraw money, get on a plane, and fly it to your destination than it is to send it electronically! Not to mention you will be paying exorbitant transaction fees — usually somewhere around 6% but it can vary depending on the financial institution.
Ripple’s goal is to make these transactions fast (it only takes around 4 seconds for a transaction to clear) and cheap.
The Ripple team currently comprises over 150 people, making it one of the biggest in the cryptocurrency world. They are led by CEO Brad Garlinghouse, who has an impressive resume which includes high positions in other organizations such as Yahoo and Hightail.
Check out “What is Ripple” for more information, including a closer look at what they do, controversies and future prospects.

#4 – Bitcoin Cash (BCH)

📷
Bitcoin Cash was created on August 1, 2017 after a “hard fork” of the Bitcoin blockchain. For years, a debate has been raging in the Bitcoin community on whether to increase the block size in the hope of alleviating some of the network bottleneck which has plagued Bitcoin due to its increased popularity.
Because no agreement could be reached, the original Bitcoin blockchain was forked, leaving the Bitcoin chain untouched and in effect creating a new blockchain which would allow developers to modify some of Bitcoin’s original programmed features.
Generally speaking, the argument for Bitcoin Cash is that by allowing the block size to increase, more transactions can be processed in the same amount of time. Those opposed to Bitcoin Cash argue that increasing the block size will increase the storage and bandwidth requirement, and in effect will price out normal users. This could lead to increased centralization, the exact thing Bitcoin set out to avoid.
Bitcoin Cash does not have one single development team like Bitcoin. There are now multiple independent teams of developers.
Read “What is Bitcoin Cash” for more information. You can also check out their reddit and official webpage.

#5 – EOS (EOS)

📷
Billed as a potential “Ethereum Killer”, EOS proposes improvements that can challenge Ethereum as the dominant smart contract platform. One main issue EOS looks to improve is the scalability problems which has plagued the Ethereum network during times of high transaction volume, specifically during popular ICOs.
A perhaps more profound difference EOS has, compared to Ethereum, is the way in which you use the EOS network. With Ethereum, every time you make modifications or interact with the network, you need to pay a fee. With EOS, the creator of the DAPP (decentralized app) can foot the bill, while the user pays nothing. And if you think about it, this makes sense. Would you want to have to pay every time you post something on social media? No, of course not!
In addition to this, EOS has a few other technical advantages over Ethereum such as delegated proof of stake and other protocol changes. Just know that EOS has some serious power under the hood to back up the claim of “Ethereum Killer”.
EOS was created by Dan Larrimer who is no stranger to blockchain or start ups. He has been the driving force behind multiple successful projects in the past such as BitShares, Graphene and Steem.
For more information on EOS such as how and where to buy EOS tokens, EOS’s vision and potential challenges, see “What is EOS”.

#6 – Litecoin (LTC)

📷
Similar to Bitcoin, Litecoin is a peer-to-peer transaction platform designed to be used as a digital currency. Due to some notable technical improvements, Litecoin is able to handle more transactions at lower costs. Litecoin has been designed to process the small transactions we make daily.
Litecoin is sometimes referred to “digital silver” while Bitcoin is known as “digital gold”. This is because traditionally silver was used for small daily transactions while gold was used as a store of wealth and was not used in everyday life.
The Litecoin blockchain is a fork from the Bitcoin chain. It was initially launched in 2011 when its founder, Charlie Lee, was still working for Google. Well-known as a cryptocurrency expert, Charlie Lee is backed by a strong development team who appear to be achieving what they set out to do. They have recently achieved a very notable accomplishment with the first successful atomic swap.
For an in-depth discussion on what Litecoin does, how it is different than Bitcoin and the team backing up the development, see “What is Litecoin”.

#7 – Cardano (ADA)

📷
Cardano is a smart contract-focused blockchain. It was originally released under the name Input Output Hong Kong by Charles Hoskinson and Jeremy Wood, a few of the early team members of Ethereum, and later rebranded into Cardano.
Cardano is trying to fix some of the largest problems the cryptocurrency world which have been causing ongoing issues for years such as scalability issues and democratized voting.
They have the potential to challenge Ethereum’s dominance in the smart contract world. Cardano is developing their own programing language similar to Ethereum; however, they are focusing more heavily on being interoperable between other cryptocurrencies.
While some cryptocurrencies are all bite but no bark, Cardano is quite the opposite. They are quietly focusing on a strong software which will be completely open-source.
Cardano’s team comprises some of the best minds in the industry, and they seek to create a strong foundation which others can build upon for years to come.
For up-to-date information on Cardano’s status see their Reddit page or official website. You can also read our article “What is Cardano” to learn more about them.

#8 – Stellar Lumens (XLM)

📷
In a nutshell, Stellar Lumens seeks to use blockchain to make very fast international payments with small fees. The network can handle thousands of transactions a second with only a 3-5 second confirmation time.
As you may know, Bitcoin can sometimes take 10-15 minutes for a transaction to confirm, can only handle a few transactions a second and, in turn, has very high transaction fees.
If this sounds a lot like Ripple, you’re right! Stellar Lumens was based off of the Ripple protocol) and is attempting to do similar things. Some of Stellar Lumens’ main uses will be for making small daily payments (micropayments), sending money internationally, and mobile payments.
Stellar Lumens is focusing on the developing world and, more specifically, the multi-billion dollar industry of migrant workers who send money back to their family in impoverished countries.
The Stellar Lumens team is led by Jed McCaleb, who has worked in numerous successful startups in the past such as eDonkey, Overnet, Ripple, and the infamous Mt. Gox.
For more information on Stellar Lumens, including the history and what sets Stellar Lumens apart, see “What are Stellar Lumens”. You can also learn about the differences between Stellar Lumens and Ripple.

#9 – TRON (TRX)

📷
As stated in TRON’s whitepaper, “TRON is an attempt to heal the internet”. The TRON founders believe that the internet has deviated from its original intention of allowing people to freely create content and post as they please; instead, the internet has been taken over by huge corporations like Amazon, Google, Alibaba and others.
TRON is attempting to take the internet back from these companies by constructing a free content entertainment system. This will enable users to freely store, publish and own data, giving them the power to decide where and how to share.
The project is led by founder Justin Sun, who has been listed on the Forbes 30 under 30 list twice (in 2015 and 2017). In addition, Sun is a protégé of Jack Ma, founder of Alibaba Group, China’s former Ripple representative and the founder of Peiwo APP.
Sun has assembled a strong team with heavy hitters including Binshen Tang (founder of Clash of King), Wei Dai (founder of ofo, the biggest shared bicycles provider in China), and Chaoyong Wang (founder of ChinaEquity Group). Sun has also secured the support of a few notable angel investors such as Xue Manzi.
For up-to-date information on Tron and further discussion of the technology and team, see “What is Tron” and their website.

#10 – IOTA (MIOTA)

📷
IOTA has seen many of the issues Bitcoin and Ethereum have with the POW (proof-of-work) and POI (proof-of-importance) models and looks to improve them with their revolutionary transaction validation network simply called “tangle”.
When issuing a transaction in IOTA, you validate 2 previous transactions. This means you no longer outsource validation to miners which requires wasteful amounts of computing power and usually a large stake of coins. These required resources are, in effect, centralizing the currencies which many believe were created to be decentralized in the first place.
With IOTA, the more active a ledger is, the more validation there is. In other words, the more people who use it, the faster it gets. You don’t have to subsidize miners, so there are no fees on transactions. That’s right: zero.
The IOTA team has been actively developing blockchain technology since 2011, and created the IOTA foundation and company in 2016. Since its emergence, the team has been continuously growing, attracting exceptional talent from around the world.
For more information on IOTA’s team and their revolutionary“tangle” technology, check out “What is IOTA”.

#11 – NEO (NEO)

📷
A leading platform for smart contracts and sometimes referred to as “China’s Ethereum”. NEO (formally Antshares) hopes to digitize many types of assets which were formerly kept in more traditional means, and therefore make it possible to use them in smart contracts.
To imagine a potential use case of NEO, think digitizing the title to a house into a smart asset, and then setting up that asset to automatically transfer to another person after payment for the house has been received. This would be, in effect, a simple smart contract.
NEO founder Da Hongfei is a leading figure in the cryptocurrency world and has worked on numerous blockchain projects in the past. The development team consists of 6 in-house investors and a large community of third-party developers.
For a complete overview of NEO, including the team, history and competitive analysis, check out “What is NEO”.

#12 – Dash (DASH)

📷
Dash (which comes from ‘digital cash’) aims to be the most user-friendly and scalable cryptocurrency in the world. It has the ability to send funds instantly confirmed by “double-send-proof” security with the added functionality of erasable transaction history and the ability to send transactions anonymously.
Like Bitcoin, Dash is meant to be used as a digital currency but has some added values such as much faster transaction times and lower fees. For a slightly higher fee, Dash has the added function of “instant send” which allows transactions to be confirmed almost instantly. This is one of the main selling points of Dash because many believe that this feature would allow it to be used in brick and mortar establishments.
The Dash development team consists of over 50 members and is led by former financial services professional Evan Duffield.
For the latest on Dash, see their official website and reddit page. You can also read “What is Dash” to learn more about the project.

#13 – Monero (XMR)

📷
Monero is a digital currency designed to be used as a completely anonymous payment system.
A common misconception with Bitcoin is that it is completely anonymous. In reality, all payments processed on the Bitcoin network are recorded on a public ledger (blockchain), so Bitcoin is actually only partially anonymous or “pseudonymous”.
This means that you can, in theory, trace back every transaction a coin has been involved with from its creation. Though users aren’t able to inherently link the public key on the blockchain with the private keys used to store the coins themselves, there will always exist a correlation between the two.
Monero has solved this problem by implementing cryptonic hashing of receiving addresses, therefore separating the coin from the address it is going to. This can be hugely valuable for anyone wishing to conceal their purchases.
The Monero development team consists of 7 core developers, only two of which are publicly known. There have been over 200 additional contributors to the project and software updates are implemented every six months or so.
To learn more about Monero including its competitors and challenges, read “What is Monero”. If you’re thinking about investing in Monero, check out our opinion piece “Should You Invest In Monero?“.

#14 – Tether (UDST)

📷
Tether is a cryptocurrency token issued on the Bitcoin blockchain. Each Tether coin is allegedly backed by one US Dollar. The goal is to facilitate transactions with a rate fixed to the USD.
Amongst other things, Tether looks to fix some of the legal issues which can arise when trading cryptocurrencies and it aims to protect people from market volatility.
Tether has faced controversy regarding their business model, and some consider it a scam. More info can be seen on reddit posts such as this.

#15 – NEM (XEM)

📷
NEM (New Economy Movement) is the world’s first proof-of-importance (POI) enterprise based on blockchain technology. With a focus on business use cases, the software was built from the ground up with adaptability in mind. NEM’s goal is for companies to use their “smart asset system” to implement customizable blockchains. A smart asset can be almost anything: a cryptocurrency token, a business’s stock or a company’s invoicing and records.
Some potential use cases for NEM’s technology include: voting, crowdfunding, stock ownership, keeping secure records, loyalty rewards point programs, mobile payments and escrow services. A list of NEM’s use cases can be found here.
The development of NEM is monitored by the Singapore-based NEM Foundation.
For more information on what NEM does and what sets NEM apart from its competitors, see “What is NEM”.

#16 – VeChain (VEN)

📷
As described in VeChain’s development plan, the organization’s purpose is to build “a trustfree and distributed business ecosystem based on the Blockchain technology self-circulated and expanding”.
They plan to do this by creating an efficient trustless business ecosystem to significantly reduce the wasteful information transfer systems of today.
Some of the areas and industries the VeChain platform is focusing on include eliminating counterfeiting in the fashion and luxury industry, food safety tracking systems, digitizing maintenance in the car industry and many other global supply chain processes.
For more information on VeChain, see their reddit and website. Read “What is Vechain” to learn about the project, and our investment opinion piece “5 Reasons to Invest in Vechain“.

#17 – Ethereum Classic (ETC)

📷
Ethereum Classic came about after a hard fork of Ethereum in 2016. The fork was a result of the infamous DOA hack where around 50 million dollars worth of Ethereum was stolen due to what was considered an oversight in the code.
The blockchain was forked in order to recoup the losses from this attack, but a small portion of the community did not wish to go back and change the original blockchain. Vitalik Buterin, founder of Ethereum, and subsequently the development team chose to go with the hard fork and work on what is now “Ethereum” today.
There is a lot of ongoing controversy with Ethereum Classic which can be better described on this reddit thread. For an in-depth discussion of Ethereum Classic, see”What is Ethereum Classic“.

#18 – Binance Coin (BNB)

📷
Binance Coin is the coin used to facilitate operations on the Binance platform, a cryptocurrency exchange that is capable of processing 1.4 million orders per second. The name “Binance” is derived from the combination of the terms “binary” and “finance”, referring to the integration of digital technology and finance.
The BNB coin is used to pay exchange fees, withdrawal fees, listing fees, and all other possible transaction expenses on the Binance platform. In order to incentivize new users to do their cryptocurrency trading on Binance, the team is offering discounts when BNB is used to pay fees. The discount will be 50% in the first year, 25% in the second, 12.5% in the third, and 6.25% in the fourth year before the discount ends.
Binance was primarily marketed to Chinese cryptocurrency investors at first, but they also have English, Korean, Japanese, French, Spanish, and Russian versions of the platform.
For a deeper look into Binance, you can read the whitepaper or check out the trading platform here.

#19 – Bytecoin (BCN)

📷
Bytecoin describes itself as “a private, decentralized cryptocurrency with with open source code that allows everyone to take part in the Bytecoin network development”. It is the first coin to offer untraceable payments, unlinkable transactions and resistance to blockchain analysis.
With Bytecoin, it is possible to send instant transactions anywhere around the world, which are totally untraceable and don’t require additional fees.
Bytecoin’s development is community-driven and a list of all of the different community websites can be found here.
For more information on Bytecoin, see: “What is Bytecoin“.

#20 – QTUM (QTUM)

📷
QTUM (pronounced Quantum) is an open-source value transfer platform which focuses on mobile decentralized apps or Dapps. QTUM is the world’s first proof-of-stake smart contracts platform.
QTUM is meant to be used as both a value transfer protocol, like Bitcoin, and a smart contract platform, like Ethereum. They have a number of technical innovations which some consider to make it superior to Ethereum, and they are focusing on mobile applications.
The platform itself is very new. It came about in March 2017, after a highly successful crowdfunding campaign raised them nearly 16 million dollars in only 5 days. QTUM has a small but strong development team and an impressive list of investors backing their ideas. QTUM’s development is lead by the Singapore based QTUM Foundation.
For further reading on the background of QTUM and what sets them apart, see “What is QTUM”.

#21 – Zcash (ZEC)

📷
ZCash is a value transfer protocol forked off of the Bitcoin blockchain. ZCash can be used like Bitcoin, with a few added improvements. With “zero cash technology”, ZCash shields both the amount transferred and the senders, making transactions truly anonymous.
ZCash is one of the new kids on the block in the world of “private transactions”.
An interesting note is that Ethereum is in the process of implementing some of ZCash’s technologies to enable transactions on the Ethereum network to be anonymous as well.
ZCash is being developed by the Zerocoin Electric Coin Company. They’ve had some great successes, most notably JP Morgan’s announcement that they would implement Zcash’s privacy technology to Quarum, a technology JP built on Ethereum.
Interested in investing in ZCash? Here’s the opinion of one of our writers: Should You Invest In ZCash?
ZCash was recently featured on the Radiolab episode The Ceremony.

#22 – OmiseGO (OMG)

📷
“Unbank the Banked” is the slogan of Omise’s online platform OmiseGo and that’s exactly what Omise has set out to do. Founded in 2013 off of the Ethereum blockchain, Omise aims to revolutionize the financial dynamics in Southeast Asia.
Omise is targeting individuals and businesses of all sizes by improving the current financial system which is slow, outdated, and inaccessible to most “everyday” people in these countries.
With their planned online exchange OmiseGO, Omise seeks to speed up the way money is spent and sent, both domestically and internationally in Southeast Asia and beyond.
They have a lot to celebrate too. OmiseGo has been building partnerships in the region and recently partnered with McDonald’s and Credit Saison.
Omise has established a strong team of over 130 staff members located in different countries. CEO and founder of Omise, Jun Hasegawa, has been involved in multiple startups and worked for Google for over 16 years.
The OmiseGO platform has been endorsed by some of the heavy hitters in the cryptocurrency world such as Vitalik Buterin and Gavin Wood, the co-founders of Ethereum.
For more information on what OmiseGO aims to do, see “What is OmiseGo”.

#23 – ICON (ICX)

📷
Fresh off a successful ICO, the Korea-based startup ICON is looking to provide a medium to connect all the different blockchains together. This puts ICON in the same field as Ark, which is attempting to accomplish similar goals.
The main concept of ICON is their idea of a “loopchain”. As stated in their whitepaper, a loopchain can be described as a “high-performance blockchain that can provide real-time transaction, which is based on enhanced Smart Contract.” Through ICON, participants will be able to connect to any blockchain without relying on the current centralized exchanges.
ICON has a relatively large team from various backgrounds. They have also secured the help of a few notable advisors such as Jason Best and Don Tapscott.
For more information on ICON and the work they’re doing, see “What is ICON“.

#24 – Lisk (LSK)

📷 Lisk is a decentralized network, like Bitcoin and Litecoin, which enables developers to deploy their own side chains off the main Lisk blockchain. These side chains are fully customizable blockchains which enable you to change the parameters you want to fit your own blockchain application.
This is similar to Ethereum and QTUM in some ways. With Lisk, the main difference is that the customizable blockchains split into their own separate side chains. This saves developers the grueling legwork of designing something from scratch. At the end of the day, side chains are only decentralized databases of blockchain applications.
Lisk is being developed by a small but quickly growing Berlin-based team. They are led by co-founders Max Kordek and Olivier Beddows who are veterans in the cryptocurrency and development world.
For a thorough look into Lisk including more on what Lisk does, its competitors, challenges and teams, see “What is Lisk”. You can also check out our case study of an accountant who invested all his life savings in Lisk: “Accountant Invests All in Lisk”.

#25 – Zilliqa – (ZIL)

📷
Zilliqa is a blockchain platform which focuses on solving the problem of scaling on public blockchains. With Zilliqa’s network, the number of transactions increases at a linear rate to the number of nodes.
This means that as nodes increase, so will its ability to handle high transaction volume. Zilliqa has already run a successful test on their network, where they were able to achieve 1,200 transactions per second with only 2,400 nodes.
Zilliqa also is the first blockchain to successfully integrate “sharding” into a public blockchain. This concept is extremely useful in improving the rate of scalability, bandwidth and performance in blockchains. Sharding, in effect, splits nodes into “shards” which can then conduct micro-transactions in each blockchain block.
In addition to this, Zilliqa claims to be more energy-efficient to mine. They also plan to implement dapps into their platform in the future.
For more information on Zilliqa, see their website and reddit. Our article “What is Zilliqa” can provide you with an overview of the project.

Source: https://www.investinblockchain.com/top-cryptocurrencies/

submitted by SilverSniper2017 to cryptoinvestingtop [link] [comments]

Why the ~7,000 BTC Withdrawn from the Binance Hot Wallet During the SYS Incident is Not that Suspicious

Why the ~7,000 BTC Withdrawn from the Binance Hot Wallet During the SYS Incident is Not that Suspicious
There's a rumour going around right now that the 7,000 BTC withdrawn from Binance's hot wallet.
Here is the link to the transactions under scrutiny.
Many people are waving this around as evidence that funds were involuntarily withdrawn from Binance’s hot wallet .So far, Binance has not responded to any of these accusations, which has added more fuel to the fire.
This is a clear misconception that I'm going to address.
Understanding Bitcoin Change
When the output of a transaction is used as the input of another transaction, it must be spent in its entirety.
Sometimes the coin value of the output is higher than what the user wishes to pay. In this case, the client generates a new Bitcoin address and sends the difference back. This is known as change.
Just like when you spend $20 to buy a $2 ice cream cone
Binance intelligently batches a bunch of withdrawals and sends all of them out in one transaction. However, it is not uncommon for there to be large amounts of change sent back to Binance’s change address.
https://i.redd.it/9e62u8rfe4a11.png
I used the Blockexplorer API to pull a list of transaction outputs from April 30th to July 6th. Then I sorted them by transaction output in descending order.
https://i.redd.it/7hiuaj1oe4a11.png
As you can see, there a number of large transaction outputs above 2,000 BTC. This is because change is being sent back to the return address.
I’ve uploaded all 77,374 transactions from this wallet here. You can look up the transaction hash on BlockExplorer to confirm it is real.
I’m not saying I know for sure that the withdrawal was authorized by Binance, but high output transactions above 2,000 BTC are not out of the ordinary and is certainly not evidence of theft.
***
I analyze a ton more data about the SYS incident, and compare it against the VIA incident in March.
If you want to read more about what I've found, check out the full article here.
submitted by haggenballs to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: NewYorkCoin posts from 2017-07-24 to 2018-04-09 09:00 PDT

Period: 258.76 days
Submissions Comments
Total 543 3256
Rate (per day) 2.10 12.57
Unique Redditors 205 474
Combined Score 3835 6264

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 1067 points, 120 submissions: hivewalletvictim
    1. Welcome Pro Snowboarder Jeff Sponzo to TEAM NYC! NewYorkCoin (NYC) has sponsored professional snowboarder Jeff Sponzo (instagram: @sp0nzo) Wish Jeff luck! He's competing in Oslo, Norway and spreading the word about NYC on his world tour!!! (33 points, 6 comments)
    2. An exhaustive email explaining NYC "roadmap" to the 'hype and scam' crowd. PLEASE READ. (31 points, 59 comments)
    3. 1,000,000 NYC BOUNTIES for every new retail/storefront business YOU get to accept NewYorkCoin in New York City. Business owner downloads Coinomi Wallet (beta) from link at newyorkcoin.net and prints their QR code for customers to pay! Business owner receives 1,000,000 NYC too! (27 points, 11 comments)
    4. Gila's Nosh | 23rd Street NOW ACCEPTS NYC! (24 points, 7 comments)
    5. LEASE NEGOTIATIONS IN PROCESS FOR AN AMAZING GALLERY SPACE IN LOWER EAST SIDE, MANHATTAN! THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER WILL BE OPENING SOON IN MANHATTAN. (24 points, 18 comments)
    6. 3 new businesses NOW ACCEPT @NewYorkCoinNYC ! Eqwipped Entertainment Recording Studio | Greenpoint, Brooklyn, An Nails Salon | Orlando, FL, Khameleon Koatings | Brattleboro, VT. newyorkcoin.net/#real (23 points, 6 comments)
    7. Another new business ACCEPTING NYC in Manhattan! Welcome the NYC Falafel Co of the Lower East Side to TEAM NYC. Merchant acceptance of NYC is starting to gain momentum... (20 points, 7 comments)
    8. NYC NOW ACCEPTED AT 14 BUSINESSES (and growing!). Welcome Paul Zepeda Gallery and Grown Fresh NYC to TEAM NYC. (19 points, 0 comments)
    9. Centre Finest Deli | New York, NY | Bitcoin ATM location | Now Supports NewYorkCoin | Acceptance Coming Soon (18 points, 4 comments)
    10. NYC Electrum-X now on github! Pull request also made to the original project: https://github.com/kyuupichan/electrumx/pull/354, once it's accepted it will be included in the master branch of electrum-x. Tip Coinomi devs! (18 points, 9 comments)
  2. 215 points, 27 submissions: Tnyc2477
    1. Calm (15 points, 10 comments)
    2. NewYorkCoin is on coinomi wallet. Coinomi is a security-first multi-asset wallet that provides native support and true ownership for 96 coins and 244 tokens, for a total of total of 340 coins and tokens, available in 168 fiat currency representations and 25 languages. (15 points, 14 comments)
    3. One special pitch for our coin to one special exchange (14 points, 10 comments)
    4. So You Want to Own Some NewYorkCoin (NYC) But Don’t Know Where to Start! Here is an Easy Guide for Beginners (14 points, 3 comments)
    5. That Perfect, Rich Exchange Everyone Needs (13 points, 7 comments)
    6. NYC Discord 2nd Meeting 1-24-2018.mp4 - Google Drive (12 points, 5 comments)
    7. Analysis of The Institutional Money On NewYorkCoin and What Our Main Objective Really Is (11 points, 7 comments)
    8. Looks a bit more crowded there on the list of Markets to trade NYC :-) (11 points, 2 comments)
    9. Please also join us at nycoincommunity for important posts from dev team. Thank you. (11 points, 20 comments)
    10. For Newly Joined Community Memebers (10 points, 0 comments)
  3. 150 points, 12 submissions: jamesburrell2
    1. Wall Street Journal article about NewYorkCoin (35 points, 25 comments)
    2. NewYorkCoin featured in Crains NewYork magazine (21 points, 5 comments)
    3. ***MUST READ FOR NEWBIES (NOOBS) trying to understanding what NewYorkCoin and other cryptocurrencies are (and are not). Very easy to read and written by a top player in the cryptocurrency space. (14 points, 2 comments)
    4. Great arguments for why NewYorkCoin's code is better for P2P micropayments than Bitcoin (14 points, 1 comment)
    5. My analogy for the early growing community of NewYorkCoin enthusiasts (NewYorkCoin is the abandoned cars and the garage is the bottom of CoinMarketCap) (13 points, 3 comments)
    6. NewYorkCoin is a technological improvement for informal value transfer systems and local currencies (12 points, 1 comment)
    7. A reminder of Bitcoin's price trajectory and potential trajectory for NewYorkCoin enthusiasts (10 points, 0 comments)
    8. YouTube user Coinreview was pretty early in identifying the promise of NewYorkCoin. (9 points, 0 comments)
    9. Good article why the NewYorkCoin community shouldn't judge the value of the coin by marketcap alone (8 points, 0 comments)
    10. Good video by the LitePay CEO (5 points, 0 comments)
  4. 129 points, 11 submissions: nodecache
    1. A New York Coin Development Vision: How BTC could be 'powered by NYC' via Lightning Network (20 points, 27 comments)
    2. Fast 'n Free Forever: an inflationary vision for a Proof of Stake New York Coin (19 points, 13 comments)
    3. Ask shapeshift and changelly to add NYC now that we're on Coinomi (18 points, 9 comments)
    4. BTC: powered by NYC - 1.1 Million NYC bounty raised for Segwit implementation (11 points, 29 comments)
    5. Requested NYC on Polo today, where are you requesting it? (11 points, 8 comments)
    6. 250,000 NYC Bounty to developer(s) to implement Segwit w/ intent to make NYC a BTC cash layer (10 points, 49 comments)
    7. Bounty update: Segwit/Lightning on NYC Roadmap (10 points, 6 comments)
    8. Alternative rebrand concept for a real artist to alter (9 points, 3 comments)
    9. Donation Address for Segwit Bounty: RGpAYLk2CtsLvBQBENQyNUhJyF8QH2zC53 (8 points, 30 comments)
    10. NYC is Checking Account to Bitcoin's Savings Account (7 points, 10 comments)
  5. 115 points, 13 submissions: gopes11
    1. Found this gem in one of the earlier posts. A lot of Great reads btw.. this guy nailed NYC (19 points, 0 comments)
    2. NYC VALUE (18 points, 1 comment)
    3. Only way NYC will go big is if we as a community come together and make it big. It’s not magic, we are investors and it is our duty to help this coin grow so developers have enough resources to further the project. (18 points, 9 comments)
    4. More exchanges is the solution (14 points, 6 comments)
    5. Dallas Mavericks announced they will accept Cryptocurrency next season.. (13 points, 3 comments)
    6. NYC ATMs (6 points, 3 comments)
    7. Reducing the supply (6 points, 2 comments)
    8. Did anyone meet up yesterday? (5 points, 5 comments)
    9. What is the next step and how can we help? (5 points, 1 comment)
    10. Go vote. Get our name out there (4 points, 0 comments)
  6. 95 points, 7 submissions: kyguy17
    1. Please vote for NYC to go on more exchanges (18 points, 13 comments)
    2. Adding NYC to tradesatoshi.com (17 points, 12 comments)
    3. Trade satoshi (16 points, 11 comments)
    4. We are accepted in Trade satoshi but (16 points, 3 comments)
    5. Added another exchange! This will be number four if we can pull it off. (15 points, 17 comments)
    6. Great job everybody that donated! I want to thank everyone for that and I want to personally thank everyone that trusted me on handling the funds. (10 points, 4 comments)
    7. Why did coinomi delist NYCoin? (3 points, 26 comments)
  7. 74 points, 15 submissions: dynamicmormon
    1. A new business accepts the New York Coin. Here the link: http://www.extravagantllc.com/ (14 points, 1 comment)
    2. New acceptance of New York coin found the community website. Please look there. There is an artist mentioned. (11 points, 0 comments)
    3. Cryptonator (8 points, 0 comments)
    4. I saw something that shows the Coins gets international (8 points, 3 comments)
    5. Crex24 (7 points, 3 comments)
    6. A question about New York Coin (4 points, 12 comments)
    7. A further press report found (3 points, 1 comment)
    8. Fork (3 points, 2 comments)
    9. How are the experiences with the New York Coin Center? (3 points, 45 comments)
    10. Huobi (3 points, 0 comments)
  8. 74 points, 9 submissions: NYCoinIsTheFuture
    1. NYC Website (16 points, 18 comments)
    2. It is imperative we get this coin on SEVERAL different exchanges (11 points, 7 comments)
    3. For whomever wins the website contest (10 points, 2 comments)
    4. One last request, could we please somehow remove the scam-like all caps description under the Google search page, something as simple as New York Coin (NYC) would be good. It just doesn't feel very professional, I'm sure others agree. (9 points, 2 comments)
    5. More exchanges - stay hungry. (8 points, 3 comments)
    6. NewYorkCoin price predictions? Expectations for 2018? (7 points, 5 comments)
    7. Website Contest (7 points, 14 comments)
    8. Which website are we going with??? (4 points, 6 comments)
    9. NYC PREDICTIONS (2 points, 3 comments)
  9. 69 points, 19 submissions: NewYorkCoin
    1. THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER (12 points, 3 comments)
    2. NYC (24hr) trading volume passing $1m!!! Coinmarketcap is fixing bug that is stopping updating of volume. All markets offline at coinmarketcap. NYC TRADING VOLUME IS EXPLODING!!! (10 points, 4 comments)
    3. WIN 1,000,000 NYC! (7 points, 5 comments)
    4. newyorkcoin.net is now multi-lingual ! NYC in 17 most popular languages. Links at bottom of homepage. 1/2 on left side now completed, the rest will be live by end of weekend (7 points, 7 comments)
    5. NYC IS STARTING TO MOVE!!! NewYorkCoin getting ready to break into TOP 300 at coinmarketcap. BUY NYC AT YOBIT! Coinomi in December. NYC ATM's in January. NEW YORK COIN CENTER coming in 2018! (5 points, 0 comments)
    6. $30,000 trading volume now. And climbing... Will NYC break $50,000/day for the first time EVER soon... P.S. This is BEFORE Coinomi adds NYC! (3 points, 1 comment)
    7. MEET NEW YORK COIN (NYC) (3 points, 0 comments)
    8. THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER is looking better and better by the day! (3 points, 3 comments)
    9. Can you find any more NYC cheapies under 0.00004? Are those gone forever? Next cheapies to disappear 0.00005. My prediction is that by end of this weekend, the CHEAPEST NYC you can ever buy again will be 0.00008 (maybe higher!) nycoin.net (2 points, 2 comments)
    10. FIND NEW YORK COIN AT 2017 MACY*S THANKSGIVING DAY PARADE! (2 points, 4 comments)
  10. 63 points, 4 submissions: throwawayhey1234w
    1. New website idea. The so called creator is absent from this, i can help with the website, we still need to get the blockchain working, rumbles of others workign on this but i think IF we want to drag this back from the dead we need to start reviving. (23 points, 29 comments)
    2. Nice Video For This Coin (21 points, 3 comments)
    3. Update on website, more pages. Now accpeting donations of new york coin so i can just keep powering through: REWEc7pAqxgD249pVm9aKBSaQU5nwzWhms (16 points, 9 comments)
    4. I am buying all in! (3 points, 4 comments)
  11. 61 points, 12 submissions: modoromodo
    1. Good job Newyorkcoin Team very interesting (28 points, 0 comments)
    2. NEW YORK COIN (NYC) PRICE LIVE, CRYPTOCURRENCY, NEWS, WIKI, PREDICTION (7 points, 4 comments)
    3. Who think nyc will make 0.01 soon (6 points, 6 comments)
    4. What are the best expectations for 2018 (5 points, 2 comments)
    5. NYC next year in top 10 ( very possible ) (4 points, 4 comments)
    6. SOON IN THE MOON (3 points, 0 comments)
    7. Is there news about ATMS (2 points, 2 comments)
    8. NEED MOR EXCHANGES FOR THIS COIN LIKE CRYPTOPIA . BINANCE . BITREX (2 points, 1 comment)
    9. New york coin in stocktwits (2 points, 1 comment)
    10. . (1 point, 1 comment)
  12. 53 points, 6 submissions: zer0san
    1. Reddit Banner & Marketing (17 points, 19 comments)
    2. New Variation: When needed I can make specific infographics for the website. (11 points, 5 comments)
    3. NYC Infographic Design for fun — Composition stolen from Sia ;) (8 points, 6 comments)
    4. New York Coin Reddit banner W.I.P (7 points, 13 comments)
    5. Plans for 2017/ Road map?? (7 points, 3 comments)
    6. Wanted to say Hi (3 points, 1 comment)
  13. 50 points, 4 submissions: ASSBORDERLINE
    1. COINOMI To add NYC In next update You can test NYC in there Beta App! (14 points, 2 comments)
    2. Just Bought 29 Million NYC (13 points, 14 comments)
    3. Reason Why NYC Rising & Brief History (13 points, 6 comments)
    4. ATM Coming very soon 😅 (10 points, 3 comments)
  14. 50 points, 4 submissions: CoinmaticNYC
    1. WISH US LUCK (ARTICLE ON CNBC REQUESTED)!!! (15 points, 7 comments)
    2. PLEAE READ!!! (14 points, 10 comments)
    3. FACEBOOK PAGE UPDATE (12 points, 1 comment)
    4. Quick maths bruv (9 points, 10 comments)
  15. 47 points, 7 submissions: lCyberneticl
    1. What do you all think? Anyone working on logo/graphics/advertising (20 points, 7 comments)
    2. Go NYC! (8 points, 0 comments)
    3. NYC (7 points, 1 comment)
    4. Work in progress! (5 points, 2 comments)
    5. My contribution to the website contest (3 points, 0 comments)
    6. Just an idea (2 points, 1 comment)
    7. NYC (2 points, 1 comment)
  16. 40 points, 1 submission: RealWorldCoins
    1. BREAKING NEWS! CNBC producer was at KEATS restaurant to video the first ever retail transaction using cryptocurrency, NY Coin.....This story is still developing and air date has not been disclosed. NY Coin is supposedly 20x faster than Bitcoin and does not have any fees. (40 points, 20 comments)
  17. 39 points, 5 submissions: NYC_NewYorkCoin
    1. If anyone can contact this place La Sirene in Manhattan, Im sure they will place the NYC sticker up (14 points, 6 comments)
    2. NYC New York Coin is now actively trading on Tradesatoshi.com Congrat's all. (8 points, 2 comments)
    3. NYC New York Coin This must be the coin!! (7 points, 0 comments)
    4. Picked up some more NYCoin! Lets Hope for the Best! NYC Coin 20X faster than Bitcoin NYC is simply more usable than Bitcoin. NYC is 20X faster to send, receive & confirm transactions. And 5X faster than Litecoin. NYC is much cheaper to use than Bitcoin or Litecoin. Actually, it's free! (7 points, 4 comments)
    5. New York Coin ,New York Coin, Start spreading the news You're leaving today Your vagabond shoes, they are longing to stray And steps around the heart of it, New York, New York -New York Frank Sinatra (3 points, 1 comment)
  18. 36 points, 4 submissions: nicovs_be
    1. ElectrumX and Electrum-NYC wallet by the newyorkcoin community (14 points, 0 comments)
    2. There's the 1st 2SAT NYC sells ever (11 points, 1 comment)
    3. KEATSBAR confirmation is now on the site (7 points, 5 comments)
    4. NYCoin Core Wallet Block data Download (Data up to date up to Jan 7th 9PM) (4 points, 5 comments)
  19. 35 points, 4 submissions: TweeknTekneek
    1. I bought in newyorkcoin !!! (15 points, 34 comments)
    2. I hope one day NYC coins are soo common, that they become the new digital coin for parking meters! (10 points, 0 comments)
    3. If and when NYC hits $0.01 - $0.10 (5 points, 8 comments)
    4. What is the best Walter for NYC? (5 points, 3 comments)
  20. 34 points, 5 submissions: fionaman
    1. Binance is Possible... (16 points, 7 comments)
    2. Will NYC make us millionaires? (8 points, 8 comments)
    3. We should try to get NYC on Coin Exchange (5 points, 2 comments)
    4. Lescovex vote - NYC #3 & "under consideration (3 points, 3 comments)
    5. Why is the total supply increasing? (2 points, 5 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. hivewalletvictim (611 points, 343 comments)
  2. Tnyc2477 (367 points, 171 comments)
  3. nodecache (340 points, 131 comments)
  4. dwilkes827 (168 points, 75 comments)
  5. nicovs_be (166 points, 74 comments)
  6. cryptonyxx (153 points, 62 comments)
  7. mariusadrian2103 (132 points, 42 comments)
  8. JohnSewards (122 points, 53 comments)
  9. zer0san (118 points, 48 comments)
  10. GiorgosK (110 points, 104 comments)
  11. kuch167 (102 points, 37 comments)
  12. jamesburrell2 (99 points, 39 comments)
  13. polkaberries (92 points, 47 comments)
  14. CoinmaticNYC (92 points, 32 comments)
  15. yarikd (90 points, 45 comments)
  16. GU1TARW0RLD- (69 points, 42 comments)
  17. kyguy17 (57 points, 21 comments)
  18. dynamicmormon (54 points, 30 comments)
  19. NewyorkCoinFrance (53 points, 21 comments)
  20. TweeknTekneek (52 points, 32 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. BREAKING NEWS! CNBC producer was at KEATS restaurant to video the first ever retail transaction using cryptocurrency, NY Coin.....This story is still developing and air date has not been disclosed. NY Coin is supposedly 20x faster than Bitcoin and does not have any fees. by RealWorldCoins (40 points, 20 comments)
  2. Wall Street Journal article about NewYorkCoin by jamesburrell2 (35 points, 25 comments)
  3. Welcome Pro Snowboarder Jeff Sponzo to TEAM NYC! NewYorkCoin (NYC) has sponsored professional snowboarder Jeff Sponzo (instagram: @sp0nzo) Wish Jeff luck! He's competing in Oslo, Norway and spreading the word about NYC on his world tour!!! by hivewalletvictim (33 points, 6 comments)
  4. An exhaustive email explaining NYC "roadmap" to the 'hype and scam' crowd. PLEASE READ. by hivewalletvictim (31 points, 59 comments)
  5. Good job Newyorkcoin Team very interesting by modoromodo (28 points, 0 comments)
  6. 1,000,000 NYC BOUNTIES for every new retail/storefront business YOU get to accept NewYorkCoin in New York City. Business owner downloads Coinomi Wallet (beta) from link at newyorkcoin.net and prints their QR code for customers to pay! Business owner receives 1,000,000 NYC too! by hivewalletvictim (27 points, 11 comments)
  7. Who is applying and sending in the info the exchanges require to get added ? Ill do it and pay the fees they require if someone will give me permission and materials I request. I’ll pay the fees as well they range $5000 to 20,000. Exchanges want money it’s that simple. by earthfunds (26 points, 10 comments)
  8. Logo Idea by shotxchance (25 points, 18 comments)
  9. LEASE NEGOTIATIONS IN PROCESS FOR AN AMAZING GALLERY SPACE IN LOWER EAST SIDE, MANHATTAN! THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER WILL BE OPENING SOON IN MANHATTAN. by hivewalletvictim (24 points, 18 comments)
  10. Gila's Nosh | 23rd Street NOW ACCEPTS NYC! by hivewalletvictim (24 points, 7 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 14 points: deleted's comment in LEASE NEGOTIATIONS IN PROCESS FOR AN AMAZING GALLERY SPACE IN LOWER EAST SIDE, MANHATTAN! THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER WILL BE OPENING SOON IN MANHATTAN.
  2. 12 points: hivewalletvictim's comment in An exhaustive email explaining NYC "roadmap" to the 'hype and scam' crowd. PLEASE READ.
  3. 12 points: yarikd's comment in dkbigmoney = Charlie K
  4. 11 points: zer0san's comment in Reddit Banner & Marketing
  5. 10 points: deleted's comment in I dreamt that NYC coin becomes #1 last night.
  6. 10 points: deleted's comment in LEASE NEGOTIATIONS IN PROCESS FOR AN AMAZING GALLERY SPACE IN LOWER EAST SIDE, MANHATTAN! THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER WILL BE OPENING SOON IN MANHATTAN.
  7. 10 points: bshaw2019's comment in Please release regular wallet updates and show that you are actually doing SOMETHING in terms of development.
  8. 10 points: jamesburrell2's comment in Wall Street Journal article about NewYorkCoin
  9. 10 points: nodecache's comment in Web page
  10. 9 points: 3mar7's comment in In an unbiased and honest opinion, what do you guys see this coin reaching in 1-2 years?
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats (Donate)
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Gold Blockchain Hit by 51% Attack Leading to $70K Double Spend ✔️EXCHANGE BINANCE como COMPRAR CRIPTOMOEDAS fácil e rápido CRYPTO.COM SUPPORTS BINANCE BNB COIN! ADD YOUR COINS TO EARN 8%!! Bitcoin: Beyond The Bubble - Full Documentary - YouTube IOTA Investing Tutorial Owning 1 Bitcoin Is At An All Time High. The Future Is Bright. Magic Money: The Bitcoin Revolution  Full Documentary ... Is Bitcoin Going to $30k or $3k? Bitcoin Technical Analysis Review $BTC

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Bitcoin Gold Blockchain Hit by 51% Attack Leading to $70K Double Spend

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